PARM Process was initiated in Uganda through December 2014 to November 2017. The joint process produced robust risk assessment, increased local capacities in Agricultural Risk Management (ARM) and developed promising proposals for ARM tools investment.
PARM Phases Status (H1)
In Uganda, the agricultural sector contributes 22.5% to GDP (in 2013/14), 54% to exports (in 2014) and 70% to employment (in 2014). Yet, over the years, the sector’s growth rate has lagged behind the GDP as the country is compounded with risks relating to production, markets, infrastructure and institutions. With the recently finalised PARM Process, the Government of Uganda and key stakeholders have:
- Assessed and prioritized agricultural risks
- Identified the right tools to manage agricultural risks
- Developed capacities on ARM
- Mainstreamed ARM into policy
Stakeholders converged to a common prioritization of risks based on average severity and frequency, and the potential losses in an extreme case scenario. The risk assessment yielded robust results to confront perceptions on risk. Crop pest and disease, post-harvest loss and market price risks were identified as the three key priority risks contrary to the perception of drought as the key risk.
Following the risk prioritization process, PARM and its partners identified three ARM tools for investment; 1) Plant Health Control Investment Plan, 2) Finance Information Risk Management (FIRM) initiative and 3) ARM Capacity Development Strategy for Extension Services Unit.
PARM worked in partnership with local universities, government agencies and international partners to deliver two capacity development (CD) training; 1) CD1 – A general 2-day seminar, separately for national stakeholders and farmers’ organisations and 2) CD2 – A one-week advance ARM course aimed at institutionalizing high-level ARM knowledge to create a pool of local ARM experts to timely advice farmers across the country.
The single most important outcome of the PARM Process in Uganda is the government’s buy-in to mainstream two tools – the Plant Health Control and Management System and the Capacity Development Strategy for Extension Services – into the Agriculture Sector Development Plan (ASDP) and the Framework Investment Plan (FIP). The last ARM tool – FIRM – attracted the interest of investment partners like the Agricultural Business Initiative (aBI) Trust and Agribusiness Alliance.
The PARM team organised its first visit mission (jointly with NEPAD) on 15-18 December 2014 to follow-up on the ARM process already started by the FAO and NEPAD in 2013.
During this mission, the Government of Uganda identified the need for a study on Agricultural Risk Management Information System. Potential synergies to support PARM studies and capacity development activities were also identified.
As part of the setting up mission in December 2014, a National ARM Steering Committee (NSC) meeting was held to re-launch PARM activities.
The Committee was chaired by the Acting Director of Plan for Modernisation of Agriculture (PMA), and Chair of the Agro-Business Department, and attended by participants from the public sector and insurance companies and associations. From the meeting, it became clear that ARM will be explicitly included in the first drafts of the National Investment Plan 2016-2020 and the Agricultural Investment Plan.
Stakeholders also developed a roadmap for PARM Process in Uganda.
Terms of Reference for Risk Assessment Study (RAS)
A Terms of Reference (TOR) for Risk Assessment was developed in February 2015 and by March 2015, experts were identified and contracted for the RAS in Uganda. The experts include local researchers from the Makerere University and external consultants with expertise in agriculture and food risks.
National Stakeholders RAS Validation Workshop
After receiving the first draft of the RAS report, a National Stakeholders Validation Workshop was held on 29-30 June 2015 in Kampala to present and discuss the draft report. Comments were received from the stakeholders for consideration in the report.
Capacity Development (CD1) for High-level Stakeholders
By July 2015, a Capacity Development (CD1) activity was organised byPARM, NEPAD and FAO in partnership with MAAIF. The activity was targeted to high-level national stakeholders in Uganda, with the objectives of; 1) introducing them to the holistic approach to analyze and manage the main agriculture risks in Uganda; 2) identifying their training needs; and 3) designing a plan on capacity development for ARM in Uganda.
Information systems study
Recognizing the critical role of information for agricultural risk analyses, PARM and its partners reached a decision to initiate an Information Systems for Agricultural Risk Management Study. A Terms of Reference for the study was developed by PARM in collaboration with NEPAD and the Uganda CAADP Focal point. A local expert was identified and contracted for the study, which was finalized and validated by September 2015.
Launching the RAS report
Following the integration of comments from the stakeholders, the Uganda RAS report was later validated by the National Steering Committee (NSC) in a meeting on the 3rd of July 2015. The RAS report was later launched on the 28th of October 2015 in Kampala on the occasion of the 6th Commemoration of the African Day on Food and Nutrition Security.
Capacity Development (CD1) for Farmers' Organisations
Also, in December 2015 another CD1 activity was organised in Mbale through PARM, NEPAD, FAO, MAAIF partnership. The activity was targeted to representatives of farmers organisations in Uganda, with the objectives of; 1) introducing them to the holistic approach to analyze and manage the main agriculture risks in Uganda; 2) identifying their training needs; and 3) soliciting their input towards the design of a capacity development plan for ARM in Uganda.
Terms of reference for a feasibility study on crop pests and diseases
After elaborative discussions, stakeholders mapped out and identified the potential tools to manage the three priority risks in Uganda – crop pests and diseases, post-harvest losses and market price fluctuations.
By April 2016, PARM developed a Terms of Reference for ARM tool feasibility study linked to crop pests and diseases. CABI was identified and contracted for the study.
Workshop on information systems for ARM
In May 2016, a seminar on Information Systems for Agricultural risk management was organised in Uganda. The country report on information systems from CEIGRAM was presented and discussed with technical experts and stakeholders.
The conceptual note for the Financial information and risk management model (FIRM) was also presented and discussed with stakeholders, the government and development partners.
Capacity development strategy meetings with MAAIF and Makerere University
On July 2016 meetings with MAAIF and Makerere University were held to discuss how to incorporate Agricultural Risk Management in the extension services strategy that is being elaborated by the Ministry of Agriculture and the opportunities to integrate ARM in the training courses and curricula of Makerere University. The Extension Services Directorate staff will be one of the first beneficiaries of the course.
Validation of feasibility studies on crop pests and diseases
In September 2016, a validation seminar was held for the Uganda Crop Pest and Diseases Study. It was organized by PARM in collaboration with MAAIF to validate the outcome of the study and recommend additional insights and practices to better manage future incidences of crop pests and diseases in Uganda.
High-level policy dialogue workshop on ARM
After the consultative process of analyzing ARM tools and developing proposals for investment, PARM and its partners held a High-Level Policy Dialogue in Kampala on November 29, 2016. It aimed at increasing the government’s buy-in to mainstream the identified ARM tools into respective policy frameworks, including the CAADP agenda and the Agricultural Sector Development Plan (ASDP). The dialogue event also served as an opportunity to identify the pathways to support the Government of Uganda and private sector partners to lead the move into the implementation phase.
Capacity Development (CD2) Course on ARM Tools
In coordination with the Department of Extension Service of MAAIF, the PARM CD Strategy for Uganda was finalized and presented to the Ministry of Agriculture of Uganda in March 2017. PARM CD Strategy includes the delivery of more CD2 training in the years ahead.
During this time, a CD course on ARM was organized and delivered by Makerere University/CAES. It was a pilot training to institutionalise ARM in public universities in Uganda. The overall outcome was positive/sufficient in terms of contents and training modality.
Finalizing the PARM Process
PARM and its partners in Uganda developed proposals for investment into three ARM tools: 1) Plant Health Plan, 2) Finance Information Risk Management (FIRM) and 3) Capacity Development Strategy for Extension Services. Development partners such as the USAID and FAO, as well as private agencies including Agricultural Business Initiative (aBI) Trust and Agribusiness Alliance, have expressed interest to invest in the proposed tools. KFW is also looking to fund selected initiatives to be implemented through NEPAD.
Country Final Report
The PARM Process yielded risk assessment, capacity building and ARM tools investment proposals which aim at creating new opportunities to boost the Ugandan agricultural sector. It also enabled PARM to partner with NEPAD, MAAIF and many other stakeholders to mainstream ARM into Uganda’s Agricultural Sector Development Plan (ASDP) and the Framework Investment Plan (FIP)
In May 2017, PARM prepared a Uganda Country Final Report presenting all the outcomes from each phase of the joint process.